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In 1455, a civil war was begun to decide who should be king of England. It was fought between the supporters of two families: the House of Lancaster and the House of York. This war was called the Wars of the Roses, because the symbol of Lancaster was a red rose and the symbol of York was a white rose.
The National Health Service (NHS), which guaranteed a minimum standard of health care for all, free at the point of use. A national system of benefits was also introduced to provide ‘social security’, so that the population would be protected from the ‘cradle to the grave’.
The Industrial Revolution was the rapid development of industry in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries. Britain was the first country to industrialise on a large scale. It happened because of the development of machinery and the use of steam power.
Mothering Sunday (or Mother’s Day) is the Sunday three weeks before Easter. Children send cards or buy gifts for their mothers.
If you are arrested and taken to a police station, a police officer will tell you the reason for your arrest and you will be able to seek legal advice.
Puritans, a group of Protestants who advocated strict and simple religious doctrine and worship. They did not agree with the king’s religious views and disliked his reforms of the Church of England.
The principle that judges are independent of the government began to be established. In England, judges developed ‘common law’ by a process of precedence (that is, following previous decisions) and tradition. In Scotland, the legal system developed slightly differently and laws were ‘codified’ (that is, written down).
Christmas Day, 25 December, celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ. It is a public holiday.
The Habeas Corpus Act became law in 1679. This was a very important piece of legislation which remains relevant today. Habeas corpus is Latin for ‘you must present the person in court’. The Act guaranteed that no one could be held prisoner unlawfully. Every prisoner has a right to a court hearing.
Conservative government from 1979 to 1990 made structural changes to the economy through the privatisation of nationalised industries and imposed legal controls on trade union powers.
Deregulation saw a great increase in the role of the City of London as an international centre for investments, insurance and other financial services.
The decade of the 1960s was a period of significant social change. It was known as ‘the Swinging Sixties’. There was growth in British fashion, cinema and popular music.
Judges also make decisions in disputes between members of the public or organisations. These might be about contracts, property or employment rights or after an accident.
In 1997 the Labour Party led by Tony Blair was elected. The Blair government introduced a Scottish Parliament and a Welsh Assembly.
In 1348, a disease, probably a form of plague, came to Britain. This was known as the Black Death. One third of the population of England died and a similar proportion in Scotland and Wales. This was one of the worst disasters ever to strike Britain.
Following the Black Death, the smaller population meant there was less need to grow cereal crops. There were labour shortages and peasants began to demand higher wages.
Is the statement below True or False?
In a bid to help control terrorism, the UK government is operating in Afghanistan with the 50-nation consortium ISAF.
The UK now operates in Afghanistan as part of the United Nations (UN) mandated 50-nation International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) coalition and at the invitation of the Afghan government.
What requirements must be fulfilled before you can become a permanent resident of the UK?
You will be agreeing to accept the responsibilities which go with permanent residence and to respect the laws, values and traditions of the UK.
British society is founded on fundamental values and principles which all those living in the UK should respect and support. These values are reflected in the responsibilities, rights and privileges of being a British citizen or permanent resident of the UK. They are based on history and traditions and are protected by law, customs and expectations.
After his victory in the Wars of the Roses, Henry VII wanted to make sure that England remained peaceful and that his position as king was secure. He deliberately strengthened the central administration of England and reduced the power of the nobles. He was thrifty and built up the monarchy’s financial reserves.
Solicitors are trained lawyers who give advice on legal matters, take action for their clients and represent their clients in court.
King Richard III of the House of York was killed in the battle and Henry Tudor, the leader of the House of Lancaster, became King Henry VII.
Elections for the European Parliament are also held every five years. Elected members are called Members of the European Parliament (MEPs).
The major political parties in the UK are the Conservative Party, the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats.
Elizabeth became one of the most popular monarchs in English history, particularly after 1588, when the English defeated the Spanish Armada (a large fleet of ships), which had been sent by Spain to conquer England and restore Catholicism.
The Queen is the ceremonial head of the Commonwealth. Membership is voluntary. The Commonwealth has no power over its members, although it can suspend membership.
In Ireland, however, attempts by the English to impose Protestantism (alongside efforts to introduce the English system of laws about the inheritance of land) led to rebellion from the Irish chieftains, and much brutal fighting followed.
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