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From 1853 to 1856, Britain fought with Turkey and France against Russia in the Crimean War.
In 1837, Queen Victoria became queen of the UK at the age of 18.
In 1921 a peace treaty was signed and in 1922 Ireland became two countries. The six counties in the north which were mainly Protestant remained part of the UK under the name Northern Ireland. The rest of Ireland became the Irish Free State. It had its own government and became a republic in 1949.
British industry led the world in the 19th century. The UK produced more than half of the world’s iron, coal and cotton cloth.
In 1801, Ireland became unified with England, Scotland and Wales after the Act of Union of 1800. This created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In May 1660, Parliament invited Charles II to come back from exile in the Netherlands. He was crowned King Charles II of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
The Welsh dragon does not appear on the Union Flag because, when the first Union Flag was created in 1606 from the flags of Scotland and England, the Principality of Wales was already united with England.
During the Victorian period, the British Empire grew to cover all of India, Australia and large parts of Africa. It became the largest empire the world has ever seen.
The Reform Act of 1832 had greatly increased the number of people with the right to vote. The Act also abolished the old pocket and rotten boroughs and more parliamentary seats were given to the towns and cities.
Civil war between the king and Parliament could not now be avoided and began in 1642. The country split into those who supported the king (the Cavaliers) and those who supported Parliament (the Roundheads).
The term ‘suffragettes’ relates to those who wanted women to gain legal rights and the right to vote in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Bill of Rights, 1689, confirmed the rights of Parliament and the limits of the king’s power. Parliament took control of who could be monarch and declared that the king or queen must be a Protestant.
In Scotland a jury has 15 members. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland a jury has 12 members.
In 1929, the world entered the ‘Great Depression’ and some parts of the UK suffered mass unemployment.
From 1853 to 1856, Britain fought with Turkey and France against Russia in the Crimean War. Queen Victoria introduced the Victoria Cross medal during this war. It honours acts of valour by soldiers.
In 1776, 13 American colonies declared their independence, stating that people had a right to establish their own governments. The colonists eventually defeated the British army and Britain recognised the colonies’ independence in 1783.
James VI of Scotland was a cousin of Queen Elizabeth. When she died without leaving an heir. James also became King James I of England.
In 1837, Queen Victoria became queen of the UK at the age of 18. She reigned until 1901, almost 64 years.
Between 1870 and 1914, around 120,000 Russian and Polish Jews came to Britain to escape persecution. Many settled in London’s East End and in Manchester and Leeds.
In 1837, Queen Victoria became queen of the UK at the age of 18. She reigned until 1901, almost 64 years. This is the longest reign of any British monarch.
Charles was held prisoner by the parliamentary army. He was still unwilling to reach any agreement with Parliament and in 1649 he was executed.
England declared itself a republic, called the Commonwealth. It no longer had a monarch.
Rudyard Kipling poems and novels reflected the idea that the British Empire was a force for good.
Charles Stuart Parnell, advocated ‘Home Rule’, in which Ireland would remain in the UK but have its own parliament.
Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933.
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