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In 1815, the French Wars ended with the defeat of the Emperor Napoleon by the Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo. Wellington was known as the Iron Duke and later became Prime Minister.
Charles II was interested in science. During his reign, the Royal Society was formed to promote ‘natural knowledge’. This is the oldest surviving scientific society in the world.
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Once you become a citizen of the UK, it does not fall as mandatory to maintain laws and rules of the country and you can do or act as per your own will and wish.
If you wish to be a permanent resident or citizen of the UK, you should:
Alexander Fleming (1881–1955) was researching influenza (the ‘flu’) in 1928 when he discovered penicillin. Alexander Fleming won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945. Penicillin is still used to treat bacterial infections today.
During the Victorian period, the British Empire grew to cover all of India, Australia and large parts of Africa. It became the largest empire the world has ever seen, with an estimated population of more than 400 million people.
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People over 75 can apply for a free TV licence and blind people can get a 50% discount.
People over 75 can apply for a free TV licence and blind people can get a 50% discount. You will receive a fine of up to £1,000 if you watch TV but do not have a TV licence.
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Discrimination in regard to Age, Sex, Disability are issues not to be discussed with anyone, and in case any such matters crop up the same are to be resolved at personal level, since, in the UK assistance from the Police or the Judiciary cannot be expected.
UK laws ensure that people are not treated unfairly in any area of life or work because of their age, disability, sex, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sexuality or marital status. If you face problems with discrimination, you can get more information from the Citizens Advice Bureau.
J K Rowling wrote the Harry Potter series of children’s books, which have enjoyed huge international success. She now writes fiction for adults as well.
By about AD 600, Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were established in Britain.
Catherine was a Spanish princess. She and Henry had a number of children but only one, Mary, survived. When Catherine was too old to give him another child, Henry decided to divorce her, hoping that another wife would give him a son to be his heir.
Some continued to believe that James was the rightful king, particularly in Scotland. Some joined him in exile in France; others were secret supporters. James’ supporters became known as Jacobites.
William Beveridge is best known for the 1942 report Social Insurance and Allied Services (known as the Beveridge Report). It recommended that the government should find ways of fighting the five ‘Giant Evils’ of Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness and provided the basis of the modern welfare state.
The UN was set up after the Second World War and aims to prevent war and promote international peace and security.
The Welsh dragon does not appear on the Union Flag because, when the first Union Flag was created in 1606 from the flags of Scotland and England, the Principality of Wales was already united with England.
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In 1801, Ireland became unified with England, Scotland and Wales after the Act of Union of 1800.
Although Ireland had had the same monarch as England and Wales since Henry VIII, it had remained a separate country. In 1801, Ireland became unified with England, Scotland and Wales after the Act of Union of 1800. This created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Skara Brae on Orkney, off the north coast of Scotland, is the best preserved prehistoric village in northern Europe, and has helped archaeologists to understand more about how people lived near the end of the Stone Age.
In 1860, Florence Nightingale established the Nightingale Training School for nurses at St Thomas’ Hospital in London. The school was the first of its kind and still exists today, as do many of the practices that Florence used. She is often regarded as the founder of modern nursing.
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Parliament Democracy prevails in the British system of Government.
The system of government in the UK is a parliamentary democracy. The UK is divided into parliamentary constituencies. Voters in each constituency elect their member of Parliament (MP) in a General Election.
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, less than 0.5% of people identified themselves as Jewish.
The United Kingdom Parliament currently has 650 Parliamentary constituencies across the constituent countries (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), each electing a single Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons by the plurality (first past the post) system of election, ordinarily every five years.
The Anglo-Saxons were not Christians when they first came to Britain but, during this period, missionaries came to Britain to preach about Christianity.
Queen Elizabeth I was a Protestant. She re-established the Church of England as the official Church in England.
Elizabeth I was very skilled at managing Parliament.
Shakespeare was a playwright and actor and wrote many poems and plays.
Millions of people were killed or wounded, with more than 2 million British casualties. One battle, the British attack on the Somme in July 1916, resulted in about 60,000 British casualties on the first day alone.
The UK is historically a Christian country. In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, 70% of people identified themselves as Christian.
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